III. ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Acquisition and production costs
In addition to the purchase price, acquisition cost includes attributable incidental costs (except for costs associated with the acquisition of a company) and subsequent expenditure. Purchase price reductions are deducted from cost.
In addition to direct material and labour costs, production cost includes production-related administrative expenses. General administrative expenses and selling expenses are not capitalised.
Borrowing costs as defined in IAS 23 that can be directly allocated to the acquisition or production of qualifying assets are capitalised from 2009. As in the previous year no such borrowing costs were incurred.
Fair value is the price that independent market participants would, under standard market conditions, receive when selling an asset or pay when transferring a liability at the measurement date. This applies irrespectively of whether the price is directly observable or has been estimated using a measurement method.
The KSB Group defined a monitoring framework concept for determining fair value. This includes a measurement team with general responsibility for monitoring all key measurements at fair value and notifying management and, if necessary, the Audit Committee of any major issues. For the purposes of calculating fair value, we make use wherever possible of estimates from market participants or estimates derived from these. In a first step we regularly review the extent to which there are current prices on active markets for identical transactions. If no quoted market prices are available, our preference is to use the market-based approach (deriving the fair value from the market or transaction prices of comparable assets, for example multipliers) or the income-based approach (calculation of fair value as a future value by discounting future cash surpluses).
Based upon the input factors used in the measurement methods, fair values are assigned to different levels of the fair value hierarchy.
- Level 1:
Quoted prices (unadjusted) on active markets for identical assets and liabilities
- Level 2:
Measurement parameters that are not the quoted prices taken into account for level 1, but that are observable for the asset or the liability either directly as a price or indirectly derived from prices
- Level 3:
Measurement parameters for assets or liabilities that are not based on observable market data
If input factors categorised into different levels are included in the fair value measurement, the measurement must be categorised in its entirety in the level of the lowest level input factor that is material for the entire measurement.
We record reclassifications between different levels in the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred. There were no reclassifications carried out in the year under review.
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to both a financial asset of one enterprise and a financial liability or equity instrument of another enterprise.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised in the consolidated balance sheet at the time when KSB becomes a party to a financial instrument. When the contractual right to payments from financial assets expires, these are derecognised. Financial liabilities are derecognised at the time when the contractual obligations are settled or cancelled or have expired. Regular way purchases and sales of financial instruments are recognised at their value at the settlement date; only derivatives are recognised at their value at the trade date. This applies to primary financial instruments such as trade receivables and monetary receivables, as well as to trade payables and financial liabilities (from or to third parties as well as affiliates and equity investments).
a) Primary financial instruments
Within the KBS Group, primary financial instruments are allocated to the following categories as financial assets or liabilities:
- Loans and receivables (LaR)
Loans and financial assets not quoted in an active market
- Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost (FLAC)
Liabilities that are not quoted in an active market, such as trade payables
- Available-for-sale (AfS) financial assets
Non-derivative financial instruments that are not allocated to any other measurement category, such as investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries or securities
None of our financial instruments are classified as “held-to-maturity investments”.
Financial instruments are carried at fair value on initial recognition, while LaR and FLAC take into account the transaction costs. Subsequent measurement is based on fair value for category AfS and on amortised cost for categories LaR and FLAC. Subsequent measurement of loans and receivables is based on amortised cost using the effective interest method. The fair values of the current and non-current financial instruments are based on prices quoted in active markets on the reporting date.
Primary financial instruments classified as “available-for-sale financial instruments” are recognised directly in equity in other comprehensive income and reported under “Changes in the fair value of financial instruments”. They are recognised in profit or loss when the assets are sold or deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired. If an asset is derecognised, the accumulated other comprehensive income is reclassified to the income statement.
As in the previous year, we did not make any reclassifications between the individual measurement categories.
We do not currently make use of the fair value option.
b) Derivative financial instruments
We only use derivatives for hedging purposes. We hedge both future cash flows and existing recognised underlyings against foreign currency and interest rate risks (cash flow hedges). The hedging instruments used are exclusively currency forwards, currency options and interest rate derivatives entered into with prime-rated banks. We hedge currency risks primarily for transactions in US dollars (USD). Interest rate risks are minimised for long-term borrowings at floating rates of interest. Group guidelines govern the use of these instruments. These transactions are also subject to continuous risk monitoring.
In the case of cash flow hedges, changes in the fair value of the effective portions of the currency derivatives are recognised under other comprehensive income and reported under “Changes in the fair value of financial instruments” in equity for as long as the underlying transaction is not recognised in the income statement.
Changes in the market value of interest rate derivatives used to hedge against interest rate risks in liabilities are recognised under other comprehensive income and reported under “Changes in the fair value of financial instruments” in equity.
The carrying amounts equal fair value and are determined on the basis of input factors observable either directly (as a price) or indirectly (derived from prices). Fair values may be positive or negative. Fair value is the amount that we would receive or have to pay at the reporting date to settle the financial instrument. This amount is determined using the relevant exchange rates, interest rates and counterparty credit ratings at the reporting date. All our information is obtained from recognised external sources.
Currency forwards and interest rate swaps are reported under other receivables and other current assets, and under miscellaneous other liabilities.
The maturities of the currency derivatives used are, as in the previous year, mostly between one and two years, and those of interest rate derivatives are one year. The maturities of the hedging instruments are matched to the period in which the forecast transactions are expected to occur. In the year under review, almost all hedged forecast transactions occurred as expected.
Intangible assets are carried at (acquisition or production) cost and reduced by straight-line amortisation. Depreciation / amortisation is reported under “Depreciation and amortisation expense” in the income statement. The underlying useful lives of intangible assets – excluding goodwill (indefinite useful life) – is between two and five years. If the reasons for an impairment loss in a previous period no longer apply, it is reversed (write-up) up to a maximum of amortised cost.
We test goodwill for impairment once a year. This relates to cash-generating units (CGU), which at KSB are generally the legal entities. Occasionally a group of cash-generating units may also serve as the basis, provided these units reflect the lowest level on which we monitor goodwill. The goodwill (and, if necessary, other assets) is reduced by the difference in value if the recoverable amount – the higher of the fair value less costs to sell and the value in use – is lower than the carrying amount of the CGU. Reversal of an impairment loss from an earlier period is not possible. In addition, a review of impairment is always carried out when events or circumstances (“trigger events”) suggest that the value could be impaired.
We apply the discounted cash flow model to determine the recoverable amount (value in use). The future earnings (EBIT in accordance with IFRS) applied were taken from a multi-year financial plan (generally covering a maximum of five years), the basis of which was adopted in December taking into account the medium-term strategy approved by management for the respective cash-generating unit. We carried out this planning based on certain assumptions which were drawn from both forecasts from external sources, e.g. current German Engineering Federation (VDMA) publications, and our own experience-based knowledge of markets and competitors. In our calculations we consistently extrapolated the result of the last plan year as a constant, considering that level to be achievable in the long term. We derived growth rates taking account of the rate of inflation and estimates with regard to regional and segment-specific circumstances.
If the recoverable amount is calculated as the fair value less costs to sell, the costs to sell are, based on past experience, set at a maximum of 2 % of the fair value. For the purposes of calculating value, we make use wherever possible of estimates from market participants (Level 1) or estimates derived from these (Level 2). In the absence of any market estimates, we make use of experience-based assumptions of the management (Level 3). In a first step we review the extent to which there are current prices on active markets for identical transactions. If no quoted market prices are available, our preference is to use the market-based approach (deriving the fair value from the market or transaction prices of comparable assets, for example multipliers) or the income-based approach (calculation of fair value as a future value by discounting future cash surpluses).
When acquiring companies we apply purchase price allocations and determine the fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired. In addition to the assets and liabilities already recognised by the selling party, we also assess marketing-related aspects (primarily brands or trademarks and competitive restrictions), customer-related aspects (primarily customer lists, customer relations and orders on hand), contract-related aspects (mainly particularly advantageous service, work, purchasing and employment contracts) as well as technology-related aspects (primarily patents, know-how and databases). To determine values we primarily apply the residual value method, the excess earnings method and cost-oriented procedures.
Development costs are capitalised as internally generated intangible assets at cost where the criteria described in IAS 38 are met and reduced by straight-line amortisation at the time of their capitalisation. Research costs are expensed as incurred. Where research and development costs cannot be reliably distinguished within a project, no costs are capitalised.
Property, plant and equipment
In accordance with IAS 16, property, plant and equipment is carried at cost and reduced by straight-line depreciation over its useful life. If an asset’s recoverable amount is lower than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognised. If the reasons for an impairment loss recognised in a previous period no longer apply, the impairment loss is reversed (write-up) up to a maximum of amortised cost.
Government grants relating to property, plant and equipment are transferred to an adjustment item on the liabilities side. This adjustment item is reversed over a defined utilisation period. As far as government grants recognised which are to be held for specific periods of time are concerned, we expect that these periods will be complied with.
Maintenance expenses are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred, unless they lead to the expansion or material improvement of the asset concerned.
The following useful lives are applied:
USEFUL LIVES OF PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
|| 10 to 50 years
| Plant and machinery
|| 5 to 25 years
| Other equipment, operating and office equipment
|| 3 to 25 years
IAS 17 defines a lease as an arrangement under which a lessor provides a lessee with the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time in exchange for a payment. A lease is classified as a finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incident to ownership to the lessee. Otherwise, such transactions are classified as operating leases.
Lease payments that are payable under operating leases are recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred. In the case of finance leases, the leased asset is recognised at the time of inception of the lease at the lower of fair value and the present value of future minimum lease payments. A liability is recognised in the same amount for the future lease payment. The asset’s carrying amount is reduced by depreciation over its useful life or the shorter lease term.
Non-current financial assets
Interest-bearing loans and investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries are measured at amortised cost. Financial instruments are carried at their fair values at the reporting date.
Investments accounted for using the equity method
Investments accounted for using the equity method are companies in which the parties exercise joint control (joint venture) or have the power to exercise significant influence over the companies’ operating and financial policies (associate); this is usually the case where an entity holds between 20 % and 50 % of the voting power. These assets are recognised at cost at the time of acquisition. If the costs of acquisition exceed the share of the net assets, adjustments are made on the basis of the fair value (pro rata hidden reserves and liabilities). The remaining amount is recorded as goodwill. It forms part of the carrying amount of the joint venture or associate and is not amortised. For subsequent measurement, the carrying amounts are increased / reduced annually by the pro-rata earnings, distributed dividends or other changes in equity of the joint venture or the associate. If local accounting principles differ from the accounting methods used in the Group, we make the necessary adjustments. The share of earnings is reported in the consolidated income statement in a separate line (earnings from investments accounted for using the equity method), and changes such as currency translation effects are taken directly to Group equity. If the losses attributable to the KSB Group correspond to the carrying amount of the company or exceed this, they are not recognised unless KSB has entered into obligations or has made payments for the company. Intercompany gains and losses from transactions between Group companies and investments accounted for using the equity method are offset against the carrying amount in profit or loss. At each reporting date we review whether there are any objective indications of impairment, and calculate the amount of such impairment if required. If the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount of an investment, it is written down to the recoverable amount. Any impairments or reversals of impairments are reported in the consolidated income statement under financial income / expense.
Pursuant to IAS 2, inventories are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value as at the reporting date. Cost is measured using the weighted average method. Write-downs to the net realisable value take account of the inventory risks resulting from slow-moving goods or impaired marketability. This also applies if the selling price is lower than production cost plus costs still to be incurred. If the reasons for an impairment loss charged in a previous period no longer apply, the impairment loss is reversed (write-up).
Advance payments made on inventories are also presented here because of the correlation and expected realisation of these advances (through conversion into inventories) within the normal business cycle. Advances received from customers are recognised as current liabilities.
Construction contracts under IAS 11
In the case of construction contracts covered by IAS 11, we apply the percentage of completion (PoC) method. According to this method, a production order is a contract for the customer-specific production of individual items or a number of items that, in terms of their design, technology and function or with regard to their use, are linked to one another or dependent on each other. If the earnings from a production order can be reliably estimated, we recognise the revenue based on the percentage of completion method. The percentage of completion of contracts is determined on the basis of the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs at the reporting date. Contract revenue consists of all contractually agreed revenues, as well as additional claims and incentive payments that are likely to result in revenue and are capable of being reliably measured. Contract revenue may vary from one period to the next, for instance because of cost escalation clauses, variations or penalties. It is measured at the fair value received or receivable. If the earnings from a production order cannot be reliably estimated, revenue will only be recognised in the amount of the contract costs incurred that are likely to be covered and the contract costs recognised as an expense for the period in which they are incurred.
The percentage contract revenue less the related advances received from customers is reported – depending on the balance – in trade receivables and PoC or within other financial liabilities. Effects in the period are recognised in the income statement as part of sales revenue.
Trade receivables and other current assets
Trade receivables and other current assets are subsequently carried at amortised cost. Low-interest or non-interest-bearing receivables are discounted. In addition, we take account of identifiable risks by charging specific write-downs using allowance accounts. Receivables that are not individually impaired are subdivided into risk classes according to how overdue they are, and written down on a portfolio basis using historical default rates. If the reasons for an impairment loss charged in a previous period no longer apply, the impairment loss is reversed (write-up).
We hedge part of the credit risk exposure of our receivables (for further explanations, refer to the
„Financial Risks – Credit Risk section“).
The prepaid expenses reported relate to accrued expenditure prior to the reporting date that will only be classified as an expense after the reporting date.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash (cash and sight deposits) and cash equivalents (short-term, highly liquid financial investments that are readily convertible to defined amounts of cash, and that are subject to only immaterial fluctuations in terms of their value) are recognised at amortised cost.
Assets held for sale
Pursuant to IFRS 5, non-current assets or disposal groups are classified as held for sale if it is highly likely that the carrying amount will be realised primarily by a sales transaction and not through continued use of that asset. It must be assumed that the sale will be completed within one year. If the Group is committed to a sale that involves loss of control of a subsidiary, all assets and liabilities of that subsidiary will be classified as held for sale, provided the above conditions are met. The intangible assets and property, plant and equipment of the held-for-sale assets are no longer amortised / depreciated, but instead are recognised at the lower of the carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.
We account for deferred taxes in accordance with IAS 12 using the balance sheet liability method on the basis of the enacted or substantively enacted local tax rates. This means that deferred tax assets and liabilities generally arise when the tax base of assets and liabilities differs from their carrying amount in the IFRS financial statements, and this leads to future tax expense or income. We also recognise deferred tax assets from tax loss carryforwards in those cases where it is more likely than not that there will be sufficient taxable profit available in the near future against which these tax loss carryforwards can be utilised. Deferred taxes are also recognised for consolidation adjustments. Deferred taxes are not discounted. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are always offset where they relate to the same tax authority. Changes to deferred taxes in the consolidated balance sheet generally result in deferred tax expense or income. If, however, a direct entry is made in other comprehensive income in equity, the change in deferred taxes is also taken directly to equity.
a) Provisions for pensions and similar obligations
Provisions for pensions and similar obligations pursuant to IAS 19 are calculated on the basis of actuarial reports. They are based on defined benefit pension plans. They are measured using the projected unit credit method.
Actuarial gains and losses are taken directly to other comprehensive income and reported in equity under “Remeasurement of defined benefit plans”. The actuarial demographic assumptions and the setting of the discount rate (based on senior, fixed-income corporate bonds) and other measurement parameters (for example income and pension trends) are based on best estimates.
Net interest is calculated by multiplying the discount rate with the net liability (pension obligation minus plan assets) or the net asset value that results if the plan assets exceed the pension obligation.
The defined benefit costs include the service cost, which is included in staff costs under pension costs, and the net interest income or expense on the net liability or net realisable value, which is recognised in financial income / expense under interest and similar expenses or under interest and similar income.
KSB companies that use a defined contribution pension plan do not recognise provisions. The premium payments are recognised directly in the income statement as pension costs in the staff costs. Other than an obligation to pay premiums, these companies have no further obligations. Consequently, the insurance risk remains with the insured parties.
b) Other provisions
Provisions are recognised if a past event results in a present legal or constructive external obligation that the company has no realistic alternative to settling, where settlement of this obligation is expected to result in an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits, and the amount of the obligation can be estimated reliably. The amount of the provision corresponds to the best estimate of the settlement amount of the current obligation on the reporting date. Any more or less secure recourse or reimbursement claims are recognised as separate assets.
Provisions for restructurings are recognised only if the criteria set out in IAS 37 are met.
Non-current provisions are discounted if the effects are material.
Financial liabilities are recognised with their amortised costs using the effective interest rate method.
Contingent liabilities (contingencies and commitments)
Contingent liabilities, which are not recognised, are possible obligations that arise from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of uncertain future events. Contingent liabilities may also be present obligations that arise from past events where it is possible but not probable that there will be an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits.
Contingent liabilities correspond to the extent of liability at the reporting date.
Income and expenses
Sales revenue consists of charges for deliveries and services billed to customers. This relates to revenue from the sale of goods and goods purchased and held for resale from the production, sale and trade of machinery, systems and other industrial products, particularly pumps and valves. In addition, sales revenue from services and licence income is reported under sales revenue for the period concerned in accordance with the economic content of the underlying contract. Sales revenue is recognised pursuant to IAS 18 when the deliveries have been effected or the services have been rendered and the significant risks and rewards associated with ownership have thus been transferred to the customer. At the time of revenue recognition, receipt of the consideration must be probable and the amount of sales revenue must be reliably measurable. A reliable estimation of the associated costs and potential return of the goods must also be possible. We essentially recognise sales revenue from the delivery of standard products upon handover to the carrier. For some international deliveries, the contractual risk transfer takes place when the goods are loaded onto a cargo ship in the port or delivered to the customer in the destination country. In these cases, sales revenue is recognised on the basis of the contractually agreed INCOTERMS. For certain deliveries and services, a declaration of acceptance by the customer is required for the recognition of sales revenue.
In individual cases and under strict conditions, sales revenue is recognised prior to delivery of the goods (so-called bill and hold arrangements).
Sales revenue for customer-specific construction contracts is reported using the percentage of completion method. We use the so-called cost-to-cost method, according to which the proceeds determined at the beginning of the sales order are compared with the estimated costs, and the sales revenue of a period is determined according to the percentage of completion measured on the basis of the costs incurred; see the explanations on “Construction contracts under IAS 11”.
Sales allowances reduce sales revenue.
Interest income and expense are recognised in the period in which they occur.
Dividend income from investments is collected when the legal entitlement to payment is created.
Operating expenses are recognised when they are incurred or when the services are utilised.
Income taxes are calculated in accordance with the statutory tax rules in the countries in which the Group operates. Deferred taxes are accounted for on the basis of the enacted or substantively enacted income tax rates.
Estimates and assumptions
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with the IFRSs as adopted by the EU requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the accounting policies to be applied. When implementing such accounting policies, estimates and assumptions affect the assets, liabilities, income and expenses recognised in the consolidated financial statements, and their presentation. These estimates and assumptions are based on past experience and a variety of other factors deemed appropriate under the circumstances. Actual amounts may differ from these estimates and assumptions. We continuously review the estimates and assumptions that we apply. If more recent information and additional knowledge are available, recognised amounts are adjusted to reflect the new circumstances. Any changes in estimates and assumptions that result in material differences are explained separately.
Impairment tests for goodwill, which are conducted at least once per year, require an estimate of the recoverable amounts for each cash-generating unit (CGU). These correspond to the higher amount from the fair value less costs to sell and value in use. The earnings forecast on the basis of these estimates are affected by various factors, which may include exchange rate fluctuations, progress in Group integration or the expectations for the economic development of these units. Although management believes that the assumptions used to calculate the recoverable amount are appropriate, any unforeseen changes in these assumptions could lead to an impairment loss.
Estimates and assumptions must also be made to review the value of assets. For each asset it must be verified to what extent there are indications of an impairment. When determining the recoverable amount of property, plant and equipment, the estimation of the relevant useful life is subject to uncertainty. The measurement of doubtful receivables is based on forecasts about the creditworthiness of customers. A material change in the assumptions or circumstances can lead in future to additional impairment losses or reversals.
For construction contracts with clients in the project business we recognise sales revenue according to the percentage of completion method. This requires estimates regarding the total contract costs and revenue, contract risks as well as other relevant factors. These estimates are reviewed regularly by those with operative responsibility and adjusted where necessary.
Provisions for employee benefits, especially pensions and similar obligations, are determined according to actuarial principles which are based on statistical and other factors so as to anticipate future events. Material factors are the reported market discount rates and life expectancy. The actuarial assumptions made may differ from actual developments as a result of changing market and economic conditions, and this can have material effects on the amount of provisions and thus on the company’s overall net assets, financial position and results of operations.
Other provisions are reported based on the best possible estimate of the probability of future outflows. The later, actual outflow can, however, differ from the estimate as a result of changed economic, political or legal conditions. This will be reflected in additional expenses or income from reversals.
The global scope of our activities must be taken into account in relation to taxes on income. Based on our operative activities in numerous countries with varying tax laws and administrative interpretation, differentiated assessment is required for determining our tax obligations. Uncertainty may arise due to different interpretations by taxable entities on the one hand and local finance authorities on the other. Uncertain tax assets and liabilities are recognised if their probability of occurrence exceeds 50 %. For the reporting, the best estimate is based on the expected tax payment. Although we believe we have made a reasonable estimate regarding any tax uncertainties, it is possible that the actual tax obligation will differ from our original estimate. With regard to future tax benefits, we assess their realisability as of every reporting date. For this reason, we only recognise deferred tax assets if sufficient taxable income is available in future. In assessing this future taxable income within a planning horizon of normally five years it must be taken into account that expected future business developments are subject to uncertainties and are in some cases excluded from control by company management (for example changes to applicable tax legislation). If we come to the conclusion that previously reported deferred tax assets cannot be realised because of changed assumptions, then the assets will be written down by the appropriate amount.
Maturities of up to one year are classified as current.
Assets that can only be realised after more than 12 months, as well as liabilities that only become due after more than 12 months, are also classified as current if they are attributable to the operating cycle defined in IAS 1. An operating cycle of more than 12 months typically applies to made-to-order production (construction contracts).
Assets and liabilities not classified as current are non-current.